two quotes on doubt(s)

Again, rubbing texts against each other.

As often happens, even the doubts of the Master become dogma in the followers.

— Juan Rodolfo Wilcock, The Temple of Iconoclasts, tr. by Lawrence Venuti [1]

And your doubt can become a good quality if you train it. It must become knowing, it must become criticism. Ask it, whenever it wants to spoil something for you, why something is ugly, demand proofs from it, test it, and you will find it perhaps bewildered and embarrassed, perhaps also protesting. But don’t give in, insist on arguments, and act in this way, attentive and persistent, every single time, and the day will come when, instead of being a destroyer, it will become one of your best workers — perhaps the most intelligent of all the ones that are building your life.

– Rainer Maria Rilke, Letters To A Young Poet, tr. by Stephen Mitchell [2]

[1] ^ The original in Italian:

Come spesso accade, perfino i dubbi del Maestro diventano nei discepoli dogma.

— Juan Rodolfo Wilcock, La sinagoga degli iconoclasti

[2] ^ The original in German:

Und Ihr Zweifel kann eine gute Eigenschaft werden, wenn Sie ihn erziehen. Er muß wissend werden, er muß Kritik werden. Fragen Sie ihn, sooft er Ihnen etwas verderben will, weshalb etwas häßlich ist, verlangen Sie Beweise von ihm, prüfen Sie ihn, und Sie werden ihn vielleicht ratlos und verlegen, vielleicht auch aufbegehrend finden. Aber geben Sie nicht nach, fondern Sie Argumente und handeln Sie so, aufmerksam und konsequent, jedes einzelne Mal, und der Tag wird kommen, da er aus einem Zerstörer einer Ihrer besten Arbeiter werden wird, — vielleicht der klügste von allen, die an Ihrem Leben bauen.

— Rainer Maria Rilke, Briefe an einen jungen Dichter
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threading quotes


When a book features “connections and interrelatedness” prominently, it seems only natural that reading it would set connections in motion — eager feelers dancing through the readingscape (and beyond), sounding it out, causing texts to rub against each other, sparking conversations. Such is the case with Inger Christensen’s collection of essays The Condition of Secrecy [1], translated by Susanna Nied and published by New Directions.

Here’s a small thread of quotes engaged in an improvisation — in bold: resonant nodes (emphasis mine).

Before we sit down with our paper in order to (maybe, maybe not) write a poem, as well as during the many hours we sit there, that’s the way it is: as if we’ve become lost. The world, which a moment ago, when we were drinking our morning coffee, was perfectly manageable and normal, has once more suddenly become far too big, and even if our consciousness wanders in all directions, bringing small bits of language along, it can’t locate exactly the stone, the plant, the situation, perhaps the incomprehensibility, from which it can find its way back to the world with the aid of a word.

— Inger Christensen, The Condition of Secrecy, tr. by Susanna Nied

Whether meandering or straight, an essay tries to follow with the closeness of a shadow the mind’s lilts and turns—while recognizing that thought and its expression are inalienably different. There will always be a gap between consciousness and words. In any case, an essay is a composition, not merely a transcription of whatever passes in the mind.

Joseph Killorin, the man handpicked by modernist writer Conrad Aiken to collect and edit his letters, explained in the introduction to Aiken’s Selected Letters that “to write a letter was a way to ‘fix’ the hourly news of consciousness.”

[…]

In other words, a single letter has a momentary function that gets lost when read as a back-and-forth exchange. Time passes in the gaps between letters. Life happens between the licking of stamps. There is something a little voyeuristic, a little seedy, a little unfair, perhaps, in looking too closely at the nakedness of a moment without acknowledging the clothed gaps between those bare moments.


[1] ^ The first pathway starts from the title itself & points to “the condition of secrecy Novalis speaks of when he says, ‘Das Äusere ist ein in einen Geheimniszustand aufgehobenes Innere.‘ (The outer world is the inner world, raised to a condition of secrecy.)” (Inger Christensen, “The Condition of Secrecy,” tr. by Susanna Nied).

[2] ^ I stumbled on this essay as I was doing some research on Lu Ji’s Wén Fù (文賦: Fu on Literature) after reading about it in one of Inger Christensen’s essays. This pathway leads straight into a rabbit hole — I might do a post on this.

sketching a reading itinerary

Reading about reading projects is tickling my own tendency to draft such plans. So here are some partial, rough sketches of reading routes I would like to travel.

  • Authors whose works I aim to explore:
    • Christine Brooke-Rose [1]
    • Guy Davenport
    • Lucy Ellmann [2]
    • Hans Magnus Enzensberger
    • Paul Metcalf [3]
    • Thucydides
    • Gregor von Rezzori [4]
  • Authors whose works I aim to further explore:
    • Mircea Cărtărescu
    • Inger Christensen
    • William H Gass
    • Alexander Kluge
    • António Lobo Antunes
    • Arno Schmidt
    • Miklós Szentkuthy
    • Olga Tokarczuk
    • Antoine Volodine
    • Virginia Woolf

& here I am, wondering: what about William Gaddis? what about Antonio Moresco? what about Marguerite Young? … Besides, I am a very slow reader… Oh, well…


[1] ^ Amalgamemnon is on its way to my mailbox. I first glimpsed the book in this tweet by Anthony Brown

and my interest further deepened when I read this piece by Davis Smith-Brecheisen.

[2] ^ I pre-ordered Ducks, Newburyport, and yes, Claro did influence my decision.

[3] ^ The first volume of his Collected Works is also on its way to my mailbox. If you feel like being tempted to discover Paul Metcalf’s works, I cannot but recommend this piece by Jacob Siefring.

[4] ^ I owe my discovery of Gregor von Rezzori to The Untranslated.

lost in a rereading in translation

I tried to invent an etymology for the word “parka” but couldn’t think fast enough. Todd was on another subject—the freight train, laws of motion, effects of force, sneaking in a question about the number of boxcars that trailed the locomotive.

Я попытался придумать этимологию слову «парка», но не успел сообразить. Тодд уже перескочил на другую тему – грузовой поезд, законы движения, физические силы, захватывая вопрос, сколько вагонов тащил локомотив.

— Don DeLillo, Midnight in Dostoevsky, Russian translation by Sergei Karpov

A few weeks ago, Twitter serendipity led me to discover Pollen — a Russian project gravitating towards American literature. Fumbling about on their website, I noticed that one of the issues of their fanzine was devoted to Don DeLillo. Curiosity went “mmm.”

<click> & here it was, first in the table of contents: a Russian translation of the short story “Midnight in Dostoevsky.” Curiosity went “MMM,” & I thought, “Well, well, well, why not reread it in the original along with its translation?”

A weird—irresistibly irrational / irrationally irresistible—compulsion.

This is how I embarked upon a rereading which is likely to take time. So far it has proved to be a wild, delightful playground for a (daredevil) beginning learner of Russian: swarming with lexical discoveries & grammatical puzzles.

“Who’s that with the beard?”

JClerkMaxwell
“The familiar Society for the Propagation of Christian Knowledge photo, showing Maxwell in right profile”

     Koteks looked at both sides, then rolled his chair closer. ‘You know the Nefastis Machine?’ Oedipa only widened her eyes. ‘Well, this was invented by John Nefastis, who’s up at Berkeley now. John’s somebody who still invents things here. I have a copy of the patent.’ From a drawer he produced a Xeroxed wad of papers, showing a box with a sketch of a bearded Victorian on its outside, and coming out of the top two pistons attached to a crankshaft and flywheel.

     ‘Who’s that with the beard?’ asked Oedipa. James Clerk Maxwell, explained Koteks, a famous Scotch scientist who had once postulated a tiny intelligence, known as Maxwell’s Demon. The Demon could sit in a box among air molecules that were moving at all different random speeds, and sort out the fast molecules from the slow ones. Fast molecules have more energy than slow ones. Concentrate enough of them in one place and you have a region of high temperature. You can then use the difference in temperature between this hot region of the box and any cooler region, to drive a heat engine. Since the Demon only sat and sorted, you wouldn’t have put any real work into the system. So you would be violating the Second Law of Thermodynamics, getting something for nothing, causing perpetual motion.

     ‘Sorting isn’t work?’ Oedipa said. ‘Tell them down at the post office, you’ll find yourself in a mailbag headed for Fairbanks, Alaska, without even a FRAGILE sticker going for you.’

     ‘It’s mental work,’ Koteks said, ‘but not work in the thermodynamic sense.’ He went on to tell how the Nefastis Machine contained an honest-to-God Maxwell’s Demon. All you had to do was stare at the photo of Clerk Maxwell, and concentrate on which cylinder, right or left, you wanted the Demon to raise the temperature in. The air would expand and push a piston. The familiar Society for the Propagation of Christian Knowledge photo, showing Maxwell in right profile, seemed to work best.

— Thomas Pynchon, The Crying of Lot 49

“and known, then, because of a painting”

RemediosVaro_BordandoElMantoTerrestre
Bordando el Manto Terrestre, 1961 by Remedios Varo

In Mexico City they somehow wandered into an exhibition of paintings by the beautiful Spanish exile Remedios Varo: in the central paintings of a triptych, titled ‘Bordando el Manto Terrestre’, were a number of frail girls with heart-shaped faces, huge eyes, spun-gold hair, prisoners in the top room of a circular tower, embroidering a kind of tapestry which spilled out the slit windows and into a void, seeking hopelessly to fill the void: for all the other buildings and creatures, all the waves, ships and forests of the earth were contained in this tapestry, and the tapestry was the world. Oedipa, perverse, had stood in front of the painting and cried. No one had noticed; she wore dark green bubble shades. For a moment she’d wondered if the seal around her sockets were tight enough to allow the tears simply to go on and fill up the entire lens space and never dry. She could carry the sadness of the moment with her that way forever, see the world refracted through those tears, those specific tears, as if indices as yet unfound varied in important ways from cry to cry. She had looked down at her feet and known, then, because of a painting, that what she stood on had only been woven together a couple thousand miles away in her own tower, was only by accident known as Mexico, and so Pierce had taken her away from nothing, there’d been no escape.

— Thomas Pynchon, The Crying of Lot 49

peeping through translation

Funnily (or frustatingly), this post has been in the pipeline for about four months [1]. It stems from a German sentence rubbing against its reflection in an English translation — with French in between. Reading this friction has unfolded into an invitation to contemplate how meaning morphs according to choices of words.

Die Schwester habe schon als junge Frau jeden Tag im Geschäft gesessen und in den Romanheften gelesen, während P nach einem Guckloch in die weite Welt gesuch habe.

— Yoko Tawada, Porträt einer Zunge

Upon reading this sentence, I looked up “Romanheften” und “Guckloch” in the German-French PONS dictionary:

  • Romanheft: roman à quatre sous publié sous forme de fascicule vendu dans les kiosques, i.e. ± penny dreadful, dime novel; the German-English PONS dictionary translates Romanheft as “cheap [or dime-store] romance novel.”
    (Roman = novel) + (Heft = [stitched] booklet)
  • Guckloch: judas, i.e. peephole.
    (gucken = to look) + (Loch = hole)

Then I read Chantal Wright’s translation:

As a young woman, her sister had sat in the store every day, reading novels, whereas P had looked for a window onto the wider world.

& I wondered — am still wondering.

The world seen through a window vs the world seen through a peephole: they are the same (aren’t they?), yet they surely do not look the same. Depending on the window —

  • A window is: an opening, usually covered by one or more panes of clear glass, to allow light and air from outside to enter a building or vehicle [2].
  • A peephole is: a small hole, opening or piece of glass, especially in a door, through which one can look without being seen [3].

So: we can argue that a peephole is a kind of window, right? If one makes a genealogy of windows, one will surely encounter peepholes.

Aside: in Japanese, a peephole / judas / Guckloch translates as 覗き穴 (のぞ・き・あな), made up of 覗き = peep & 穴 = hole, or as 覗き窓 (のぞ・き・まど), made up of 覗き = peep & 窓 = window.

A window defines a point of view. A frame. Like a camera. Or, the other way round: to quote Naoya Hatakeyama: “Doesn’t [a camera] look like a small room or a ‘shed’ with a window?” [4]

Can a novel be a window onto the wider world? What if it is a cheap novel? Are some books panoramic windows whereas others are peepholes? Does the geometry of a window-book depend on the reader looking/peeping through it? Does it make a significant difference that P’s sister was reading Romanhefte rather than Romane?

There is something prismatic about having access to two (or more) versions of a text — either the original & a translation, or two translations. Reading passes through a prism: engagement with the text — or rather, the texts — fans out in an ever wider spectrum. Surprise, puzzlement, amazement. Pausing to chew over a choice of words, a turn of phrase, a translatio. Feeling how the translation rubs languages against each other, and how languages rub against each other in the reading experiences.


[1] ^ Why so long? Maybe I was trying to make sure that this post would not sound like policing. Maybe I was waiting to hear about Atelier Bow-Wow and the book WindowScape 2 — 窓と街並の系譜学.

[2] ^ Source: Wiktionary.

[3] ^ Source: ibidem.

[4] ^ From: Naoya Hatakeyama, “The Photographer and Architecture,” Places Journal, April 2018. Accessed 17 Jul 2018. https://doi.org/10.22269/180403.